There are many benefits of diverse native grasslands. There are many undesirable consequences of grassland loss and destruction. There are pressing needs for agricultural productivity. Thus, there is great interest in using native perennial grassland plants as crops to produce biomass as the raw material for bioenergy and bio-based products, to improve soil health, to improve water quality, to conserve water, to provide vital wildlife habitat, and to generate farmer income. That is, there is significant multiple benefits possible from cropping systems based on native grassland plant species.